Define Cognitive Thinking
Define Cognitive Thinking — Necessary Skills
5. Which cognitive skills are most important for success?
Since the brain is such a sophisticated organ, learning is a complex process. Many interrelated cognitive skills contribute to academic and occupational success. Broadly categorized, these critical skills include:
- Working Memory
- Processing Speed
- Long-Term Memory
- Visual Processing
- Auditory Processing
- Logic and Reasoning
Define Cognitive Thinking — The Connection to Learning
The detailed list that follows shows how each skill connects to the learning task it enables. The strength or weakness of one skill impacts the general effectiveness of other skills.
Read through this list carefully. You will see how each skill makes a contribution and needs to function well for overall learning to be easy, fast, and successful. You will also realize why the causes of both learning success and learning difficulty are not as much of a mystery as they may seem.
- Sustained Attention enables you to stay on task for a period of time.
- Selective Attention enables you to stay on task even when a distraction is present.
- Divided Attention allows you to handle two or more tasks at one time.
- Working Memory is the ability to retain information for short periods of time while processing or using it.
- Processing Speed is the rate at which the brain handles information.
- Long-Term Memory is the ability to both store and recall information for later use.
- Visual Processing is the ability to perceive, analyze, and think in visual images.
- Visual Discrimination is seeing differences in size, color, shape, distance, and the orientation of objects.
- Visualization is creating mental images.
- Auditory Processing is the ability to perceive, analyze, and conceptualize what is heard and is one of the major underlying skills needed to learn to read and spell.
- Auditory Discrimination is hearing differences in sounds, including volume, pitch, duration, and phoneme.
- Phonemic Awareness is the ability to blend sounds to make words, to segment sounds, to break words apart into separate sounds, and to manipulate and analyze sounds to determine the number, sequence, and sounds within a word.
Logic and reasoning
- Logic and Reasoning skills are the abilities to reason, prioritize, and plan.
Excerpts of the book Unlock the Einstein Inside by Dr. Ken Gibson