Studies on LearningRx

What are researchers finding out about LearningRx?

What difference does brain training make? Do our programs impact cognitive skills? Is brain performance changed? Do individuals and families benefit? The following research studies may answer some of these questions for you. At LearningRx, research on our programs is one of our top priorities. Read for yourself what studies are showing related to LearningRx brain training programs. Download our Client Outcomes and Research Results or explore the individual studies below.

Ledbetter, C., Moore, A.L., Mitchell, T. (2017). Cognitive effects of ThinkRx cognitive rehabilitation training for eleven soldiers with brain injury: A retrospective chart review. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(825). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00825

The current study examined the cognitive outcomes following ThinkRx, a clinician-delivered cognitive rehabilitation training program for soldiers recovering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acquired brain injury (ABI). In a retrospective chart review, we examined cognitive outcomes of 11 cases who had completed an average of 80 hours of ThinkRx cognitive rehabilitation training delivered by clinicians and supplemented with digital training exercises. Outcome measures included scores from six cognitive skill batteries on the Woodcock Johnson – III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Participants achieved gains in all cognitive skills tested and achieved statistically significant changes in long-term memory, processing speed, auditory processing, and fluid reasoning with very large effect sizes. Clinically significant changes in multiple cognitive skills were also noted across cases. Link to article:

Carpenter, D., Ledbetter, C., & Moore, A.L. (2016). LearningRx cognitive training effects in children ages 8-14: A randomized controlled study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30(5), 815-826. doi: 10.1002/acp.3257
In a randomized controlled study, the effects of a one-on-one cognitive training program on IQ, memory, visual and auditory processing, processing speed, reasoning, and attention for students ages 8-14 were examined. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group to complete 60 hours of cognitive training or to a wait-list control group. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in general intelligence and individual cognitive skills after completing cognitive training with ThinkRx, a LearningRx program. Results showed statistically significant differences between groups on all outcome measures except for attention. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are examined. Link to study:

Hill, O.W., Zewelanji, S., & Faison, O. (2016). The Efficacy of the LearningRx Cognitive Training Program: Modality and Transfer Effects. Journal of Experimental Education: Learning, Instruction, and Cognition, 84(3), 600-620. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2015.1065218. This article describes two trials testing the efficacy of the LearningRx one-on-one cognitive training program and its computer-based version (Brainskills) in laboratory and school settings. Study 1 tested Brainskills in a laboratory setting with 322 middle school students. Paired t-tests revealed significant gains on all cognitive measures and math performance after 3 weeks of training. Study 2, a randomized control study, included 225 high school students randomly assigned to one of three conditions: LearningRx, Brainskills, or study hall (control) in a school setting for a 15-week training period. Univariate ANCOVAs revealed significantly higher scores for the treatment groups compared with controls on working memory, logic and reasoning, and three of four math attitude measures. Link to abstract:

Gibson, K., Carpenter, D.M., Moore, A.L., & Mitchell, T. (2015). Training the brain to learn: Beyond vision therapy. Vision Development and Rehabilitation, 1(2), 120-129.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the comprehensive cognitive training program, ThinkRx. Sixty-one children (ages 6-18) were given pretest and post-test cognitive assessments. Thirty-one students completed a 24-week cognitive training program in a LearningRx center. A matched control group of thirty children did not receive training. Multiple regression analyses indicated that treatment group membership was a statistically significant predictor of outcomes in long-term memory, logic and reasoning, working memory, processing speed, auditory processing, and Word Attack. The treatment group realized significantly greater gains in six of seven cognitive measures. Link to study:
Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Ledbetter, C., & Miller, T.M. (2016). Clinician-delivered cognitive training for children with ADHD: Transfer effects on cognitive and behavior from the ThinkRx randomized controlled trial. Manuscript in second peer review.

In a randomized controlled study, we examined the effects of a one-on-one cognitive training program on memory, visual and auditory processing, processing speed, reasoning, attention, overall IQ score, and behavior for students ages 8-14 with ADHD. Results included greater pretest to post-test change scores on all variables for the treatment group versus the control group with statistically significant differences noted in working memory, long-term memory, logic and reasoning, auditory processing, and IQ score. Qualitative outcomes included far transfer to cognition and behavior as reported by participants, parents, and clinicians.

Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Miller, T.M., & Ledbetter, C., (2017). Transfer Effects from Two Methods of Delivering Cognitive Training to Children with Learning Struggles: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Manuscript in peer review.
In a randomized controlled trial assessing equivalence of parallel groups of children ages 8-14, we compared cognitive and behavioral outcomes between a group who received 60 hours of ThinkRx cognitive training delivered one-on-one by a clinician (n = 20) versus a group of children who received 30 hours of ThinkRx delivered by a clinician and the remaining 30 hours through digital training procedures (n = 18). Results showed no significant differences between groups on tests of working memory, logic and reasoning, auditory processing, visual processing, processing speed, or overall IQ score. Behavioral outcomes were similar between both delivery methods. These results suggest that both delivery models are efficacious interventions for children with learning struggles.

Ledbetter, C., Faison, M.O., & Patterson, J. (2016). Correlation of cognitive training gains and resting state functional connectivity. Presented at Society for Neuroscience, November 2016, San Diego, CA.
In a randomized controlled trial, 30 high school students were randomly assigned to ThinkRx cognitive training (n = 11), Brainskills digital training (n = 12), or a control group (n = 7). Resting state MRI results showed training-induced gains in global efficiency associated with visual processing, auditory processing, contextual associations, the default mode network, and the cerebellum. For all seven cognitive skills measured, changes in resting state functional connections correlated with changes in performance on the test. Link to results

Doctoral Dissertation Examines Real-Life Benefits of Cognitive Training
Dr. Edward Jedlicka used an observational survey completed by parents to evaluate whether LearningRx brain training produced noticeable, real-life improvements in their children, especially in the areas of cognitive skills, academic success, and oppositional behavior. Read the dissertation. Associated manuscript is in second peer review.

Doctoral Dissertation Examines the Profiles of Cognitive Trainers Associated with Success for Students
Dr. Amy Moore studied characteristics of 150 cognitive trainers that predicted outcomes for 1,195 clients with and without ADHD. After examining the predictive value of trainer personality, degree level, degree field, certification level, and pre-hire cognitive screening score on client gains in long-term memory, working memory, processing speed, and general intelligence, she found that no trainer profile held practical significance. Dr. Moore concluded that the intervention itself may be more important than the characteristics of the person delivering it. Read the dissertation.

Doctoral Dissertation Examines the Effectiveness of One-on-One Brain Training on Memory and Processing Speed in Adolescents
Before and after scores of 1,277 adolescents were evaluated by Brian E. Pfister to determine whether LearningRx brain training improved working memory and processing speed. Read the dissertation.

Doctoral Dissertation Examines Impact of One-on-One Brain Training on Intelligence and Academics
Dr. Alicia Luckey studied the impact of LearningRx brain training on GIA, memory, and reading in clients with ADHD, clients with dyslexia, and clients who were not reported to have any type of disability. Read the dissertation.

Doctoral Dissertation Examines the Effects of LearningRx on Memory in Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury
Dr. Poonam Ishanpara analyzed the pre-test and post-test scores of 39 adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Her results indicated statistically-significant differences in long-term memory, short-term memory, and working memory after LearningRx training. Read the dissertation.

Moore, A. (2015). Achievement Outcomes for LearningRx Students: Math and Reading Achievement Before and After Cognitive Training.
This report summarizes the analysis of reading and math achievement outcomes for more than 6,000 students who completed a ReadRx or MathRx training program at LearningRx between 2008 and 2014. ReadRx students made statistically significant gains on tests of Word Attack, Spelling Sounds, Sound Awareness, and Passage Comprehension. The mean gain across reading achievement tests was 3.6 years. MathRx students made statistically significant gains on tests of Math Fluency, Applied Problems, and Quantitative Concepts. The mean gain across math achievement tests was 3.3 years. In a subset of students who provided state achievement test results, 91% percent of the students who completed the ReadRx program showed improvement on state reading achievement tests after the intervention. See the results of the study.

Moore, A. (2015). LearningRx Training and IQ Gains.
This presentation reports the changes in IQ from before and after LearningRx training of more than 18,000 students between 2008 and 2015. The average IQ before training was 97 and the average IQ after training was 111, resulting in an average IQ gain of 14 points. The presentation also reports on a subset of 40 students with double baseline testing, revealing a decline in IQ between the time of diagnosis and beginning LearningRx training and then a dramatic increase in IQ following LearningRx training. See the results of the study.

Effectiveness of LearningRx Among Students in the Lowest Quartile
Doctoral Student Alicia J. Luckey, M.A., Educational Psychology, Arizona State University, examined the effect of LearningRx training on 2,080 clients who completed programs in 2006. She focused on clients whose before-training scores fell in the lowest 25%. Read the report.

Independent Analysis of Test Results from 1,265 LearningRx Clients
Roxana Marachi, P.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Child & Adolescent Development at California State University, Northridge, analyzed the pre-training and post-training scores of 1,265 LearningRx clients who participated in the program in 2005. Read her analysis.

Ongoing Research:

Cognitive Training and Traumatic Brain Injury
( NCT#02918994)

Cognitive Training and ADHD
( NCT# 02917109)

Multidisciplinary Approach to Treating Mild Cognitive Impairment
( NCT# 02943187)

LearningRx Client Outcomes: 2010-2015
Pretest and post-test scores of more than 18,000 LearningRx clients between 2010 and 2015 were analyzed. As a group, clients made statistically significant gains in all cognitive and academic skills measured by the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. The average IQ gain was 14.9 points. Gains in cognitive skills ranged from 3.2 years to 5.0 years. Gains in reading skills ranged from 2.0 years to 6.3 years while gains in math skills ranged from 2.2 years to 3.5 years. Link to Client Outcomes and Research Results, 2016 Edition.

Some of the statistics on this page are based on the average pre- and post-test results of thousands of clients, without a control group. You may see more or less improvement in IQ and/or cognitive skills following your program.

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